Graphic Design
- History -
Pop Art
1950 - 1970
pop art emerged from the uk and the us and challenged the traditions
of fine art. That includes comics, advertisement and mass-produced
cultural objects.
the goal and execution is to use pop culture in new ways, like removing
items from their context of assosiation or combining it with unrelated
material. the artform often uses irony to emphasize the banal elements
of the culture.
Andy Warhol was the leading artist in the pop art movement and is to this day known by most. He explored how advertising and celebrity culture worked together in different types of media like paint photography, sculpture and more.
Roy Lichtenstein was inspired by the comic strip, popular advertising and "his work defined the premise of art through parody".
SWISS
1950 - 1960
STYLE
ABOUT THE STYLE

The Swiss Style follow the principles of clean, readability and objectivity. It’s also said that the grid was born here. Not the grid in itself but the way it’s now used in design. 

“Typography begins with a mathematical structure”. Why not follow the same harmonious “easy-to-read” structure for design? These ideas shaped the Swiss Style, and it was dominated by grids, assymetric layouts and the sans serif type fontface. Photography was also more prominent than illustrations.

One of (or more like: the one) the most prominent typefaces from the Swiss Style is “Akzidenz-Grotesk”, or as it was often called and sold as “Standard” or “Basic Commercial”. It’s these kinds of sans-serif fonts that started the movement.

The teachers of Swiss Style argued that “design should focus on content, not decorative extras. These are some of the fundamentals that define the movement. It’s meant to let information heavy design to be “read and studied” rather than admired and seen.

ERNST KELLER
or as he’s also known “The Father of Swiss Design” worked as a teacher at “Kunstgewerbeschule” in Switzerland. It was his teachings of wanting design to be focused on content and love for grids that influenced the Swiss Style.
ARMIN HOFFMAN
was a co-founder of “Schule für Gestaltung” (Basel School of Design) which was established in 1947. He was a student of Ernst Keller and just like his teacher he preffered typography over illustrations. His work was focused around graphic form, but like all other Swiss Style designers it was still simple and objective.
JOSEF MÜLLER-BROCKMAN was another one of Keller’s students. His work was heavily focused around grids and the “Standard” typeface. He took over Keller’s teaching position at Kunstgewerbeschule and his teachings helped spread the Swiss Style across the world. He managed to do so by establishing the “Neue Grafik” (New Graphic Design) journal. It was a magazine he co-edited with three others.
Wes Wilson
Also known as the father of the 1960's rock concert poster, was one of the leading artists in the psychadelic art movement. Some say it was his way of changing promotional art with nearly cryptic letters filling every available space, how line melted into other lines and the way color clashed that was the birth of the psychadelic poster.
Rick Griffin
Griffin was closely identified with the American rockband "Grateful Dead" for whom he created posters and album covers. He designed film posters, covers and also had his own comic called "Murphy".
In History
The "hippie subculture" was closely intwinded with the psychadelic art movement. The foundation being that you should find harmony with nature, experiment with music and art as well as communal living. The overall feeling being "Peace, Love and Understanding"
about the style
The psychadelic movement was centered in San Fransisco and was the most prominent around 1966-1972. It grew out of the increased use of hallucinogenic and "psychadelic" drugs.

The movement grew out of a younger generation being given a voice. Non-eastern religions and philosophies were brought to light. The art that surfaced in the mid 60's frequently expressed drug-unduced visions by the use of vivid colors, flowing and organic patterns, vibrant energy and portrayingtime and space as fluent by bringing together images from different cultures and time in elaborate collages.
N EW W AV E
1970 - 1980
WOLFGANG WEINGART
APRIL GREIMAN
IN HISTORY
ABOUT THE STYLE

Weingart is known as the father of the new wave style. He worked at the Basel School of Design in Switzerland and developed New Wave Typography in the early 70's. According to Wolfgang himself he never intended to create a style of his own. He was just exploring and as he used Swiss Style as base and then got creative with it by "blowing it apart" the Swiss Punk Typography (or New Wave) was born. It just happened that his students enjoyed it and helped spread it.
Greiman was one of the first designers to leap into digitalized design and a pioneer of the New Wave Art Movement. She was a student of both Armin Hofmann (one of the Swiss Style "founders") and Wolfgang Weingart.

Greiman collaborated with photographer Jayme Odgers and created a Cel Arts poster that became an icon of the California New Wave Style.
Disco music emerged in the late 70's and Feminism and Punk was becoming more and more prominent.
The New Wave style is a response (or natural progression) to the Swiss Style. The philosophy was that typography can play a more expressive role.

Some style characteristics were inconsistent letterspacing, collages, it defied strict grid-based arrangements and the type varied in angles and weight.
Street art is just as the name indicates: art on the streets. It started out with tagging where the artist writes their name or handle on various buildings and constructions. There was (and still is) and achivement to be had by tagging on difficult locations like high up on buildings. The atists competed in making their tags better nthan the other artists. Tagging and grafitti was mainly made with spraypaint.
GRAFITTI was frowned upon and considered negative by the establishment as it was related to gangs and their culture. Street art served as a way for people who didn't have other ways to spread their message to get their voice heard and it was often used to display dissatisfaction with society. When street art emerged was during a time where the first cases of HIV and AIDS were found and atomic weapons posed a big threat.

Grafitti works in a similar way today. The background piece is made by Eme Free Thinker in response to the murder of George Floyd and the Black Lives Matter Movement. I suspect that a lot of art created during this time will be looked back upon in the future as art that affected our style.
KEITH HARING got recognized for his random drawings in New York subways. He was mainly active as a street artist in the 80's and often created political pieces not rarely surrounding homosexuality and AIDS.
SHEPARD FAIREY is famous for his piece "Andre the Giant has a Posse" and also his poster of Barack Obama during the campaign called "HOPE". Andre the Giant was a street art campaign that was distributed by the skater community and grafitti artists in form of stickers.
STREET ART 1980-